Allen, Gardner Weld, 1856-1944: Massachusetts Privateers of the . 1927:(Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society v77.

Bell, Edward L. Persistence of Memories of Slavery and Emancipation in Historical Andover: The Massachusetts Woman Enumerated as a “slave” in the 1830 U.S. Census and the Family of Rosanna Coburn from Enslavement to Contingent Freedom. Shawsheen Press, 2021.

Bell, J.L.. The Road to Concord: How Four Stolen Cannon Ignited the Revolutionary War. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2016

Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998

Booth, Robert. Death of an Empire: The Rise and Murderous Fall of Salem, America’s Richest City. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2011.

Cain, Alexander. We Stood Our Ground. Self-Published, 2004

Dolin, Eric Jay. Rebels at Sea : Privateering in the American Revolution. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2022.

Endicott, C M.. Account of Leslie’s retreat at the North bridge in Salem. Salem, Mass.: W. Ives & G. W. Pease, printers, 1856.

Fowler, William M. Rebels Under Sail: the American Navy during the American Revolution 1976. Charles Schribner’s Sons, New York, NY.

Hoffer, Peter Charles. Prelude to Revolution: The Salem Gunpowder Rail of 1775. 2013: The John Hopkins University Press.

Holton, Woody. Liberty Is Sweet: The Hidden History of the American Revolution New York: Simon & Schuster, 2021.

Howe, Octavius. Beverly Privateers of the American Revolution. Cambridge, J. Wilson & Sons, 1922. (Available on Internet Archive).

Morrison, Dane. True Yankees: The South Seas and the Discovery of American Identity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Norton, Mary Beth. The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800. 1980: Cornell University Press. Original Publication 1980. Republished with an essay by the author.

Norton, Mary Beth. 1774: The Long Year of Revolution. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Groups, 2021.

Tagney, Ronald N. The World Turned Upside Down: Essex County During America’s Turbulent Years, 1763-1790. Madison: The University of Wisconsin, 1989.

Vickers, Daniel. Farmers & Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630-1850. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994.


Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the American Revolutionary War a compilation prepared from the Archives.1891. 17 Volumes. Available at Internet Archive, Google Books, etc.



Morris, Richard J. “General Gage Comes to Salem: Interests, Ideologies, Identities, and Family Alliances Collide on the Eve of the American Revolution.”Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 20, no. 2 (2022): 263-304. doi:10.1353/eam.2022.0010.



Richard Morris (he/him) is Professor Emeritus of History at Lycoming College. He has published several articles on Salem, Massachusetts during the Revolutionary era and has recently completed a book-length manuscript entitled, “Merchants, Mariners, and Mechanics Rising: The American Revolution in Salem, Massachusetts.” He may be contacted at

Read Richard Morris’ article, “General Gage Comes to Salem: Interests, Ideologies, Identities, and Family Alliances Collide on the Eve of the American Revolution,” in the Spring 2022 issue of Early American Studies.

Morris, Richard. “Cancel Culture and Call-out culture in Salem, Essex County Massachusetts on the eve of the American Revolution.”



Maas, David E., editor Divided Hearts, Massachusetts Loyalists 1765-1790: A Biographical Directory. The Society of Colonial Wars the Commonwealth of Massachusetts & The New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1980. 

Massachusetts Regiments in the Continental Army.

Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum: Revolutionary War Collection, 1770-1856, 1901-1911, 1932, 1961, undated



The Siege of Boston –

Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, by Gardner Weld Allen: